consciousness as a psychological construct that varies along a continuum, broadly categorised into normal waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness (naturally occurring and induced)
the measurement of physiological responses to indicate different states of consciousness,including electroencephalograph (EEG), electromyograph (EMG), electro-oculograph (EOG) and other techniques to investigate consciousness (measurement of speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks, subjective reporting of consciousness, including sleep diaries, and video monitoring)
changes in a person’s psychological state due to levels of awareness, controlled and automatic processes, content limitations, perceptual and cognitive distortions, emotional awareness, self-control and time orientation
changes in levels of alertness as indicated by brain waves patterns (beta, alpha, theta, delta) due to drug-induced altered states of consciousness (stimulants and depressants)
the effects on consciousness (cognition, concentration and mood) of one night of full sleep deprivation as a comparison with effects of legal blood-alcohol concentrations.
sleep as a regular and naturally occurring altered state of consciousness that follows a circadian rhythm and involves the ultradian rhythms of REM and NREM Stages 1–4 sleep (excluding corresponding brain wave patterns) and physiological responses for each stage
theories of the purpose and function of sleep (REM and NREM) including restoration theory and evolutionary (circadian) theory
the differences in sleep across the lifespan and how these can be explained with reference to the total amount of sleep and changes in a typical pattern of sleep (proportion of REM and NREM).
changes to a person’s sleep–wake cycle and susceptibility to experiencing a circadian phase disorder, including sleep–wake shifts in adolescence, shift work and jet lag
the effects of partial sleep deprivation (inadequate sleep either in quantity or quality) on a person’s affective (amplified emotional responses) behavioural and cognitive functioning
the distinction between dyssomnias (including narcolepsy and sleep-onset insomnia) and parasomnias (including sleep apnoea and sleep walking) with reference to the effects on a person’s sleep–wake cycle
the interventions to treat sleep disorders including cognitive behavioural therapy (with reference to insomnia) and bright light therapy (with reference to circadian phase disorders).
NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Define consciousness. 1 mark How does consciousness occur on a continuum? 2 marks. Define normal waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness. 2 marks. Define the following terms and explain how they may be used to assess if someone is in an altered state. (2 marks per question) - EEG - EMG - EOG List and explain other quantitative tests that could be done. 2 marks. List and explain qualitative tests that could be done. 4 marks. List the 5 characteristics that change when someone is in an altered state of consciousness. 10 marks. Explain the difference between controlled and automatic processes. 4 marks. Explain the changes in the levels of alertness as indicated by brain wave patterns due to drug-induced altered states (stimulants and depressants), giving an example of a stimulant and depressant. 6 marks. Explain the effects of consciousness (cognition, concentration and mood) of one night of full sleep deprivation as a comparison with effects of legal blood-alcohol concentrations. 8 marks.
IMPORTANCE OF SLEEP
Explain the circadian rhythm. 2 marks. Explain ultradian rhythms. 2 marks. Explain the 5 stages of sleep. 10 marks. Define the purpose and function of sleep according to the restoration theory of sleep, including one piece of evidence to support the theory, a strength and a limitation. 5 marks. Define the purpose and function of sleep according to the evolutionary/survival/circadian theory of sleep, including one piece of evidence to support the theory, a strength and a limitation. 5 marks. Explain the differences in sleep across the lifespan and how these can be explained with reference to the total amount of sleep and changes in a typical pattern of sleep (proportion of REM and NREM). 10 marks. TABLE - Make a table summarising the differences across the lifespan (there is one above).
EFFECTS OF SLEEP DISTURBANCES AND POSSIBLE TREATMENTS
Define sleep disturbance and sleep disorder. 2 marks. Define and explain the difference between dyssomnias and parasomnias with reference to the effects on a person's sleep-wake cycle and an example of each (explain the example). 8 marks. Define circadian rhythm phase disorders. 1 mark. Explain the sleep-wake cycle shift in adolescence. 3 marks. Explain the effect shift work can have on your sleep. 3 marks. Explain the effect jet lag can have on your sleep. 3 marks. Explain the effects of partial sleep deprivation on a person's affective, behavioural and cognitive functioning. 6 marks. Explain how CBT may be used to treat insomnia. 6 marks. Be sure to include the cognitive and behavioural factors that may contribute to the disorder, and the cognitive and behavioural treatments. Explain how bright light therapy may be used to treat circadian phase disorders. 4 marks.